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The Palazzo Medici was at first owned by the Appiano family who governed Pisa at the end of he 14th century. In 1400 it was bought by the Medici.

The Palazzo Reale was commissioned to Baccio Bandinelli by Cosimo I in 1559. The palace underwent enlargement. It had previously been the Caetani family’s. This was the place where Galileo Galilei shared with the Grand Duke of Tuscany his knowledge of the planets he had found out thanks to his telescope.

The 14th century Gothic Palazzo Gambacorti (Picture 2) is where at present the town hall is housed. Its interiors have depictions of Pisa’s success in sea battles.

The Gothic Palazzo Agostini (Picture 1), aka Palazzo dell'Ussero, has a façade made in the 15th century and vestiges of the ancient walls which were built even before 1155. It is named after the Caffè dell’Ussero (Lungarno Pacinotti 27), housed in the palazzo, a historic gathering point inaugurated in 1775 and still open, where the first Italian Congress of Scientists had its venue in 1839.